Part 3 of Indian Constitution

Part III of Indian Constitution is all about Fundamental Rights which are enforceable through constitutional courts. Whenever there is encroachment on inalienable human rights which has been restated in Constitution of India can be enforced through Supreme Court of India under Article 32, which is fundamental right itself and give constitutional remedies and similarly one can also approach respective High Courts as per their jurisdictional area. In the Constitution of India, fundamental rights part start with definition of state and then followed by laws inconsistent with FR / Fundamental Rights.

There are six fundamental rights of Indian constitution along with the constitutional articles related to them are mentioned below:

  • Right to Equality (Article 14-18)
  • Right to Freedom (Article 19-22)
  • Right against Exploitation (Article 23-24)
  • Right to Freedom of Religion (Article 25-28)
  • Cultural and Educational Rights (Article 29-30)
  • Right to Constitutional Remedies (Article 32)

List of the articles included in part 3 are as following:

Article 12 : Definition
Article 13 : Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights
Article 14 : Equality before law
Article 15 : Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth
Article 16 : Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment
Article 17 : Abolition of Untouchability
Article 18 : Abolition of titles
Article 19 : Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.
Article 20 : Protection in respect of conviction for offences
Article 21 : Protection of life and personal liberty
Article 21A:  Right to education
Article 22 : Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases
Article 23 : Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour
Article 24 : Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.
Article 25 : Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion
Article 26 : Freedom to manage religious affairs
Article 27 : Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion
Article 28 : Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions
Article 29 : Protection of interests of minorities
Article 30 : Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions
Article 31 : Compulsory acquisition of property (…)
Article 31A : Saving of laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc.
Article 31B : Validation of certain Acts and Regulations
Article 31C : Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles
Article 31D : Saving of laws in respect of anti-national activities (…)
Article 32 : Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part
Article 32A : Constitutional validity of State laws not to be considered in proceedings under article 32 (…)
Article 33 : Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their application to Forces, etc.
Article 34 : Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while marital law is in force in any area
Article 35 : Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part

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